C922 Emerging Trends and Challenges in 21st Century Nursing

C922 Emerging Trends and Challenges in 21st Century Nursing

Executive Summary

 Technology has revolutionalized nursing education today leading to a shift from pen and paper to online learning. Educational institutions are observed to adopt new technologies to foster learning and provide meaningful experiences to students. The purpose of this proposal is to identify a technology that can be implemented to promote learning during “The Role of the BSN Nurse in Promoting Community Health” course.

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To effectively implement the new technology, a survey will be conducted to identify the needs of students and the gaps to be filled. A literature review process will be the second step to ensure the proposed technology is supported by current evidence and its benefits to students. At this point, key stakeholders including faculty, IT personnel, and nursing students will be involved to discuss the potential benefits and shortcomings of the technology. Collaborative approaches will be used to analyze the proposed technology and an amicable solution reached via a consensus. The Canvas learning management system is the proposed technology that can address the diverse needs of students during the community health nursing course.

Successful implementation of the technology will be done using Kurt Lewin’s change management theory. Education and training of stakeholders will be key to the sustainability of the new change. A few barriers that may hinder the adoption of the new technology include the cost of the technology, employee resistance, and security breach issues observed with modern technologies.

Curriculum Technology Proposal

Information and communication technologies have become a major area of focus in nursing education and healthcare delivery today. Most students are now comfortable with technology and interactive media in educational settings and this may be crucial in adjusting to the increasingly complex healthcare environment. Technology allows instructors to provide students with knowledge and skills without face-to-face interaction. For example, the use of learning management systems (LMS) has allowed students to access learning materials 24/7 and allow learning to take place at the convenience of the student (John, 2022). This discussion focuses on the implementation of technology to facilitate the learning of nursing students. This technology will bridge the gap between traditional learning and modern ways of instruction during the role of BSN nurse in promoting community health course. Literature review

Credible Sources

Please review Appendix A “Literature Review Summary Table”.

Summary of Sources

Technology in Nursing Education

Online learning is the new approach to higher education and it utilizes an integrated content of knowledge and technology beyond face-to-face learning (Gause et al., 2022). Due to the rapid change in nursing education, faculty members have to assume the responsibility of administering online courses and preparing designs that are different from traditional approaches. To ensure technology is effectively utilized, research establishes that faculty members need to have competence in the areas of social, managerial, and technical application (Chavis et al., 2021). Moreover, it is important for faculty to receive proper education regarding the utilization of technology and methods to support learning. Instructors have to understand that technology is used for the communication of instructions to students to enhance their creativity and critical thinking (Gause et al., 2022). This technology also extends beyond the classroom setting and involves the use of simulations in clinical areas. Overall, technology is an important aspect of nursing education and should be adopted by all institutions to improve performance among students.

Learning Management Systems (LMS)

Studying online is a trend that has been on the rise for decades and the use of learning management systems seems to dominate in most institutions. LMS is a web-based technology that allows students and teachers to interact in the form of e-learning. According to research, LMS aims at addressing the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains of learning (John, 2022). LMS allows for constant access to resources regardless of the student’s location and provides an avenue for all students to learn at the same pace. Concerns about the applicability of LMS have been raised in the past but its usefulness is now supported by current evidence. For instance, the use of LMS among postgraduate nursing students showed that the technology facilitates preparation, repetition, and flexibility (Steindal et al., 2021). Apart from these good features that support the use of LMS, there are a few disadvantages of the technology. Research establishes that clinical reasoning skills and the ability to interpret and solve complex clinical problems have decreased among students (John, 2022). There is a need for instructors to examine how technology can be useful in addressing the clinical skills of students.

Canvas Learning Management System

Digital technology in higher education should promote learning and Canvas is among the best technologies observed to serve this purpose. Canvas is now the most widely used LMS in the US and Canada and serves to improve learning in junior institutions and higher learning (Marachi & Quill, 2020). Many educators have agreed that technology strengthens collaborative learning and provides a seamless experience for students. The technology has the capacity to harvest multiple pieces of information from school systems and can be used to design education curricula to promote student learning. Among the basic learning functions of this technology include creating pages, posting comments, online discussions, submitting assignments, accessing learning materials, and conferencing (Chavis et al., 2021). Although the technology offers flexibility in learning, data confidentiality and access remains a key concern. It is also unclear whether the student data collected is accessed by third parties and this leaves a risk for privacy breaches (Marachi & Quill, 2020). Despite the availability of these threats, Canvas is a technology that can be adopted to promote learning and accommodate new realities of nursing education.

Needs Assessment

            There is no doubt that LMS offers students an opportunity to improve their learning and adjustment to the world of healthcare technology. Canvas technology has proven to be effective in meeting the needs of students and allowing online learning at the convenience of the learner (Marachi & Quill, 2020). One area that requires deeper research is how Canvas technology can be used to improve the clinical reasoning of students that seems to be affected by online learning methods. The decreased contact between the instructors and students because of technology has affected performance and complex cases now seem to be challenging for students (John, 2022). Secondly, there is a need to develop more safety measures to ensure students’ data is protected when utilizing LMS technology. Evidence suggests that data breach is a key concern for many institutions and there should be more research on how educational institutions can pull stronger data protections.

Need-Gap Analysis

Needs assessment involves the process of identifying and determining how to fill gaps in an organization. A systematic process was used when performing a gap analysis to identify the need for technology to promote student learning in the community health nursing course. The first step involved conducting a survey to identify the learning needs of students and how the new technology can meet the perceived needs. The second step involved a literature review to identify a technology that can be implemented to promote learning. Canvas LMS was identified and discussed with stakeholders during step three. The fourth step will involve the gathering of resources to implement the technology and step five will involve the education and training of stakeholders. This project will conclude with the implementation of the Canvas LMS and the evaluation of results at the end of the course.


The key stakeholders during the implementation of the new technology will include faculty, nursing students, and It personnel.

Faculty. These include the lecturers and administrators who will be involved in designing curricula based on the Canvas LMS. These individuals will provide guidance to students and learn how to use the new technology to improve student outcomes. The administrators will be involved in providing financial support and monitoring the progress of the new technology in meeting the desired needs of the students.

Learners. Nursing students will be directly involved in the use of the new technology in various ways. For example, they will access learning materials and do online discussions via the new platform. Additionally, the students will participate in giving feedback through surveys and questionnaires.

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IT personnel. The Canvas LMS utilizes technology that is best understood by qualified IT personnel. These individuals will analyze the current technologies in the institution and determine the need for improvement. They will also guide other stakeholders in implementing the new technology.

Methods of Collaboration

            Stakeholder collaboration, with the right approach, can provide a powerful mechanism for solving complex problems in organizations. During the process of implementing change in the institution, the first method of stakeholder collaboration will involve effective communication. Good communication can serve to bring together stakeholders and ensure everyone is on the same page. Effective communication will involve the regular passing of information, allowing stakeholders time to respond, and addressing their issues promptly. The second method of collaboration will involve assigning roles to stakeholders and respecting the opinions of each involved party. Assigning roles will ensure each stakeholder participates in the Canvas technology implementation process. These strategies will be effective because they will promote respect among teams and encourage the participation of all team members.

Current Technologies

The current technologies that are available to address the needs of nursing students in the facility involve the use of e-books and online journals. These technologies both utilize the online environment and allow students to access learning materials without physically visiting the school library. The advantages of these technologies include easy access to learning materials and access to current literature. The disadvantages of these technologies include access to limited content and it is dependent on the availability of the internet.

The proposed technology to address the needs of nursing students is Canvas LMS. This software can be used to perform multiple educational tasks like submitting assignments, online discussion boards, accessing learning materials, and registering for courses among many others. The advantage of this technology is that it can improve the student’s critical thinking and is convenient for students across all learning environments (John, 2022). The disadvantage of Canvas technology is that it is internet dependent and is subject to access by third parties which can lead to a breach of student’s data.

Technology Challenges

The current state of technology in the institution offers students with limited exposure to active learning strategies. It does not promote strategies like discussions and simulation-based learning. The second challenge with the current technology is that it does not promote critical thinking among nursing students. The lack of adequate active learning contributes to the poor development of critical thinking skills. The third challenge with the current state of technology in the course is that it offers limited information about the evolving needs of patients and modern ways to deal with them. Students are limited from learning virtually and utilizing online platforms that are now observed to improve their knowledge about diseases.

Overcoming Challenges

Overcoming the three challenges above will require the implementation of a new technology that improves the engagement of students in the learning process. First, the Canvas LMS will promote active learning by ensuring online discussions are available for students to share (Marachi & Quill, 2020). The technology will promote critical thinking by exposing students to real-life scenarios that can be solved online. Canvas LMS will promote student-centered learning by ensuring access to materials from any point and planning learning according to the student’s preferences.

Summary of Findings

The needs assessment process demonstrates a lack of technology that prepares students to address the evolving roles in nursing. The current technology only allows for access to e-books and journal articles limiting students from a chance to engage actively. Additionally, mobile technology does not promote critical thinking because students are not challenged enough with real-life patient scenarios. The implementation of the Canvas LMS will ensure students acquire deeper knowledge about community health nursing. The new approach will promote active learning by ensuring students discuss online and interact with the instructors at their convenience.

Collaboration with Stakeholders

The key stakeholders that will decide on the implementation of the new technology will include the faculty team, IT personnel, and nursing students. The first step of collaboration will involve the presentation of the gap analysis conducted via surveys and the collection of data from the literature. The literature review process will provide adequate information about available technologies to implement. Through meetings, the stakeholders will discuss the available options and reach a consensus based on merits. The administration will weigh the costs of implementation and maintenance of the new technology. A cost-benefit analysis will also be an important tool when deciding the implementation of the new technology.

Force Field Analysis Assessment

Forces FOR

Curriculum Proposal

  Curriculum Proposal   Forces AGAINST Curriculum Proposal
Academic shift to online learning environments.    

Implementation of the Canvass Learning Management System.





  Uncertainty of technology use in nursing education and healthcare.
 Evolving world of technology in education and medicine.     Data breach and security issues associated with LMS.
Increasing competition in education and healthcare environments.   Cost of implementation and maintenance of the technology.
The need for active learning and engagement of students.     Organizational culture for change.
 Reliability and the value for money     Barriers like time and infrastructure required to make the most of the technology.
 The need to improve teaching and administrative functions.      


Organizational Factors

The internal organizational factors that may hinder the implementation of the new technology include a lack of support from stakeholders and the cost of implementation. Some faculty members may oppose the new technology because of its uncertainty to improve student outcomes while the huge initial costs of LMS may affect acceptance of the technology by the administration. External factors that may act as barriers to the new technology include data security requirements by regulatory bodies and competition from other institutions. Canvas LMS is subject to data breach which may require the organization to provide sufficient proof that adequate security measures are available. Stiff competition from other institutions may facilitate the adoption of the new technology.

Forces for Integration

There are various forces observed to push the need for technology use during the implementation of the community health nursing course. The first factor to consider is the need for technology that keeps students in touch with modern reality. Secondly, competition from other institutions makes the adoption of new technology the best shot to improve student outcomes and attract more students. The third force for integration is the reliability of Canvas technology in improving student outcomes. The technology will ensure students learn actively and acquire critical thinking skills that will improve the institution’s rankings.

Challenges for Integration

The first challenge observed is the huge cost of implementation and maintenance of the new technology. The adoption of the technology will require training of staff, purchase of software, and setting up infrastructure to support implementation. The second challenge is an organizational culture whereby resistance may be observed. Some educators may think the new technology will slow down instruction and fail to benefit students in the long run. The third challenge is the issue of security which affects almost every technology today.

Change Theory

The theory selected to guide the implementation of the new technology is Kurt Lewin’s change management model.

Justification of Change Theory

Lewin’s theory describes change management in three stages. The first stage is unfreezing which entails determining what needs to be changed and the measures that can be taken to effect the change. It involves creating awareness among employees that change is needed in the organization (Hussain et al., 2018). The second stage deals with change itself whereby the organization implements new ways of doing things. Key features of this step are education and training of employees to adopt the new change. Stage three is called refreezing and it involves strengthening the new change such that it fits the organization’s culture (Hussain et al., 2018). This theory is proposed because it facilitates change management in three simple steps. The theory provides users with an understanding of how to manage and sustain change.

Potential Resistance to Technology

Many of the problems of resistance to change are observed among employees based on unique perceptions, needs, and personalities. The Canvas technology adoption may be subject to resistance from faculty because they have been used to traditional teaching and learning methods. Secondly, these individuals will be required to take an extra course on LMS management which will be time-consuming. The administration may also show reluctance based on the cost of implementing and sustaining the technology.

Plan to Implement Change Theory

Kurt Lewin’s change management theory will be used to implement the Canvas LMS in the institution. The unfreezing stage will involve conducting a survey among the learners and educators to identify gaps that need to be addressed. The gaps will be presented to stakeholders and a new technology proposed to improve learning. During the change stage, Canvas LMS will be adopted, implemented, and stakeholders will be trained to use the technology. Support from leadership will be key to the success of this change management phase. During the refreezing stage, barriers will be identified and stakeholders will be engaged to mitigate the barriers. More training will be offered to students and faculty to ensure the sustainability of the new technology.


Rationale and Purpose

This proposal serves to identify a curriculum technology that can be used to promote learning and student outcomes for the community health nursing course. The technology will serve to address issues with active learning and critical thinking among students when undertaking the course.

Filling the Curriculum Gap

The gap observed is the lack of a technology that allows students to learn and adapt to changing nursing world. The current technology in the facility only allows students to access articles and e-books that minimally address technological issues in nursing. The Canvas LMS is an option that will ensure students utilize the online learning environment and interact with their peers to improve their knowledge and understanding of community health nursing.

Significance of the Proposal

Technology usage plays a key role in the facilitation of learning in higher education. This proposal provides the institution with an opportunity to identify gaps in nursing education, especially those related to technology. Additionally, the proposal provides a solution to technology use among nursing students based on current evidence.



Chavis, C., & Efe, S. U. (2021). Evaluation of teaching through online tools and Canvas learning-management system at Morgan State University. In 2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference Content Access. https://peer.asee.org/evaluation-of-teaching-through-online-tools-and-canvas-learning-management-system-at-morgan-state-university

Gause, G., Mokgaola, I. O., & Rakhudu, M. A. (2022). Technology usage for teaching and learning in nursing education: An integrative review. Curationis45(1), e1–e9. https://doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v45i1.2261

Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002

John, K. J. (2022). Learning management system and its role in the effective delivery of medical education. SBV Journal of Basic, Clinical and Applied Health Science5(4), 105-106. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10082-03164

Marachi, R., & Quill, L. (2020). The case of Canvas: Longitudinal datafication through learning management systems. Teaching in Higher Education25(4), 418-434. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1739641

Steindal, S. A., Ohnstad, M. O., Landfald, Ø. F., Solberg, M. T., Sørensen, A. L., Kaldheim, H., Mathisen, C., & Christensen, V. L. (2021). Postgraduate students’ experience of using a learning management system to support their learning: A qualitative descriptive study. SAGE Open Nursing7, 23779608211054817. https://doi.org/10.1177/23779608211054817



Appendix A: Table 1. Literature Review Summary table

Table 1.            
Literature Review Summary Table        
First Author (PubYear) Title Purpose Context Findings Relevance Strength of Evidence
Steindal et al., 2021  Postgraduate Students’ Experience of Using a Learning Management System to Support Their Learning: A Qualitative Descriptive Study. To gain knowledge about postgraduate students’ experiences with the use of LMS in a nursing master’s programme. Postgraduate nursing students from a university college in Norway. LMS supports learning.

LMS tool facilitates the preparation of students and offers flexibility.

 This research demonstrates that an LMS can help students prepare for learning, especially when dealing with difficult topics. Level V, Qualitative study.

Strength: The data analysis process utilized was iterative and utilized multiple authors.


Weakness: The study participants were recruited from a single college and the results may not apply to other universities.

John, 2022 Learning Management System and Its Role in the Effective Delivery of Medical Education. To explore the role of LMS and e-tools in the improvement of knowledge and skills acquisition by students. Learning and teaching in the field of medicine.  LMS increases convenience because there is adequate availability of resources.

The study identifies ways students can improve learning from home and how it can save teachers time.

 LMS is a tool to facilitate learning by making it more convenient in terms of the accessibility of material.

LMS also helps in time management.

Level VII, Expert opinion


Strength: The study provides adequate information on how LMS can help students and teachers to improve learning.


Weakness: As an expert opinion, the study lacks enough proof from experiments or a literature review of data.

Marachi, 2020 The case of Canvas: Longitudinal datafication through learning management systems.


 To analyze the datafication of higher education through the Canvas LMS.   Learning in higher education markets. Most institutions are ill-equipped to protect students and faculty from data harvesting and exploitation. This study shows that the implementation of LMS can be challenging and measures must be taken to ensure the security of data.  Level VII, Expert opinion


Strength: The article provides a detailed description  of Canvas LMS including its advantages and disadvantages.

Weakness: It is just an expert opinion and lacks substantial evidence from experimental studies.

Chavis, 2021 Evaluation of Teaching Through Online Tools and Canvas Learning-management System at Morgan State University To analyze the effectiveness of Canvas LMS and the readiness of faculty to implement the technology. Teaching and learning environement at Morgan State University. There was improved student performance upon implementation of Canvas LMS.

Training and more preparation time was required to implement the Canvas LMS.

This study outlines two key factors that can help in the successful implementation of the new technology; time and training.  Level Vi, Descriptive study


Strength: Thorough analysis of findings using statistical calculations and presentation of findings using tables and figures.


Weakness: The study findings cannot be applicable in other settings because the study was conducted in one University.

Gause et al., 2022 Technology usage for teaching and learning in nursing education: An integrative review. To explore and describe technology usage for teaching and learning in nursing education. A literature search from EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect databases to identify research on nursing education. Technology is widely used in nursing to improve learning and clinical experiences. The study supports the implementation of technologies to improve learning among nursing students. Level II, Integrative review


Strength: The study contains evidence from well-designed quantitative research.

Weakness: The researchers only included studies from 2016 to 2021  and this can be a limitation given the long use of technology in this era.

 Appendix B: Table 2. Curriculum technology need-gap analysis table

Current Curriculum Technology Desired Curriculum Technology Need-Gap Action Steps to Meet the Need-Gap

Journal articles

Canvas learning management system The rise of the internet has fundamentally shifted teaching and learning in higher education. Compared to the traditional methods of instruction, today’s learning requires the use of technology and tracking of students using their online activities. The implementation of an LMS can help to improve student engagement and contribute to active learning. Step 1: Survey to identify the learning needs of students and the role of technology in improving learning outcomes.

Step 2: Conduct a review of the literature to identify the importance of LMS in higher education and what type of system can be implemented.

Step 3: Identify the new technology and discuss findings with stakeholders.

Step 4: Gather resources and acquire the technology.

Step 5: education and training of students, teachers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of the technology.

Step 6: Pilot study and implementation of the new LMS.

Step 7: Evaluation of effectiveness.



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